Gingivitis is characterized by erythema and bleeding of the gums, especially with brushing. Gingivitis is very common during pregnancy. Gingivitis is reversible with dental cleaning and improved oral hygiene.
Periodontitis is deep inflammation of the gums, ligaments, and bony structures. It can lead to pain, infection, and tooth loss. It is also associated with severe systemic complications such as heart disease, diabetes, and preterm labor.
Gingival hyperplasia is enlargement of the gums that makes hygiene difficult. It is typically caused by medications such as calcium channel blockers and anticonvulsants.