Heart Disease

Periodontal disease is associated with coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, though the impact is unclear.

  • Studies support an association between periodontitis and atherosclerotic vascular disease, but not a causative relationship.
  • Inflammatory cytokines implicated in atherogenesis are also produced in periodontitis.
  • Treatment of periodontal disease has not been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk.

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Beck JD, Eke P, Heiss G, et. al. Periodontal Disease and Coronary Heart Disease - A Reappraisal of the Exposure. Circulation. 2005; 112: 19-24.

Lockhart PB, Bolger AF, Papapanou PN, et al. Periodontal Disease and Atherosclerotic Disease: Does the Evidence Support an Independent Association? Circulation. 2012; 125(20): 2520-44.

Kebschull M, Demmer RT, Papapanou PN, "Gum Bug, Leave my Heart Alone!" Epidemiologic and Mechanistic Evidence Linking Periodontal Infections and Atherosclerosis. J of Dental Research. 2010; 89: 879-902.

Demmer RT and Desvarieux M. Periodontal infection and cardiovascular disease: The heart of the matter. JADA. 2006; 137 (supplement 2): 14S-20S.

Huck O, Saadi-Thiers K, Tenenbaum H, et al. Evaluating periodontal risk for patient at risk of or suffering from atherosclerosis: Recent biological hypotheses and therapeutic consequences. Archives of Cardiovascular Disease. 2011; 104(5): 352-358.