Gingival Hyperplasia

Gingival hyperplasia can be associated with poor oral hygiene, underlying systemic disease, or as a medication side effect. Oral hygeine may be impaired by developmental disability or poor manual dexterity as a result of stroke, osteoarthritis of the hands, or Alzheimer's disease or other dementia.


  • Gums or teeth have unsightly gingival enlargement.
  • Teeth become hard to clean which puts patients at risk for periodontal disease.
  • Periodontitis may occur particularly where there is concurrent gingival inflammation, untreated dental plaque, and poor oral hygiene.


  • Poor oral hygiene practices
  • Drug induced (Phenytoin, Methotrexate, Cyclosporin, Calcium channel blockers)
  • Underlying systemic disease (e.g. leukemia)

Preventive Measures & Treatment

  • Meticulous oral hygiene
  • Regular professional cleanings
  • May require gum resection surgery
  • Alternative medications may need to be considered

Severe Gingival Hyperplasia


Severe Gingival Hyperplasia

John McDowell, DDS
John McDowell, DDS


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Pazianas M, Miller P, Blumentals WA, et al. A review of the literature on osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients with osteoporosis treated with oral bisphosphonates: prevalence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics. 2007; 29(8):1548-58.

Kumar A, Kumar V, Singh J, et al. Drug Induced Gingival Hyperplasia: An Updated Review. Int J of Pharm & Toxicology Science. 2011; 1: 34-42.