Gingivitis is characterized by inflammation of the gingiva without destruction of the periodontal ligament or bone, which distinguishes it from periodontitis.


  • Mild gum swelling
  • Tenderness
  • Erythema
  • Bleeding gums when brushing
  • Bad breath or bad taste in the mouth


  • Plaque builds up due to poor oral hygiene
  • Changes in hormone levels as a result of puberty, pregnancy, and diabetes can modify the gingival response to plaque, resulting in increased gingivitis
  • Oral foreign bodies such as popcorn kernels are a frequent culprit in acute gum inflammation

Preventive Measures & Treatment

  • Effective brushing and flossing
  • Regular dental visits to remove plaque accumulation and reinforce appropriate home care

Mild Gingivitis

Judith Skelton, MEd, PhD
Judith Skelton, MEd, PhD

Moderately Severe Gingivitis

John McDowell, DDS
John McDowell, DDS