Medication Side Effects

More than 90% of the elderly take prescription medication each week. In fact, 57% take five or more medications daily, and 12-20% take more than ten medications daily.

Gingival Overgrowth

Phenytoin, methotrexate, calcium channel blockers Gingival Overgrowth
IV bisphosphonates Osteonecrosis
Chemotherapy and radiation therapy Stomatitis and mucositis
Steroids Candidiasis
Nifedipine in type II diabetics Periodontal disease
Sugar containing medication preparations, e.g., syrups Dental Caries
Progesterone, nitrates, beta and calcium channel blockers Dental erosions due to gastric reflux
Antihypertensives, antidepressants, antihistamines, diuretics Xerostomia


Zhang X, Hamadeh IS, Song S, et al. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in the United States Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31(2):336-340. doi:10.1002/jbmr.2693

Aghaloo TL, Tetradis S. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in the Absence of Antiresorptive or Antiangiogenic Exposure: A Series of 6 Cases. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017;75(1):129-142. 

Kaufman DW et al. Recent pattern of medication use in the ambulatory adult population of the United States. JAMA 2002; 287(3): 337-344.

Steinman MA, Hanlon JT. Managing medications in clinically complex elders: there's got to be a happy medium. JAMA 2010; 304(14): 1592-1601.

Mabi L, Papas A. Oral Implications of Polypharmacy in the Elderly. Dental Clinics of North America. 2014; 58(4): 783-796.