Large studies demonstrate safe use in pregnancy.
No direct studies in pregnancy have been performed, but studies where it has been used as an intervention have not demonstrated harm.
Vaginal application studies have shown no harm to the fetus. No studies of oral use are available, but exposure would be similar when used as a mouthrinse. Absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is poor.
Ly KA, Milgrom P, Rothen M. Xylitol, sweeteners, and dental caries. Pediatric Dentistry. 2006: 28: 154-163.
American Dental Association Council on Access, Prevention and Interprofessional Relations. Women's Oral Health Issues. 2006.
Motherisk. Toronto, Ontario, Canada at www.motherisk.org (which included referencing National Collaborative Perinatal Project, 1959-1974, Record Group 443, National Institutes of Health.)
Briggs GC, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation, Ninth Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA 2011.