Advanced periodontal disease
Refer to a dentist for treatment such as antibiotics and deep root scaling, and counsel on meticulous oral hygiene. While it is unclear if treatment of periodontal disease reduces the risk of preterm birth, it is safe in pregnancy.
Extensive dental caries
Refer to a dentist for restoration. Treating this patient's caries during pregnancy is safe and can reduce the risk of transferring caries-causing oral bacteria to her newborn. Counsel on diet, oral hygiene, and consider the use of topical fluoride or xylitol gum.
Observation unless it bleeds easily, interferes with eating, or does not resolve after delivery.
Pointing periodontal abscess
Urgent referral to a dentist for definitive treatment which might include drainage, root canal therapy, tooth restoration or extraction, and antibiotics. Treatment is safe in all trimesters of pregnancy.